Volume 17 Number 2
March 2020
Article Contents
Han Xu, Yao Ma, Hao-Chen Liu, Debayan Deb, Hui Liu, Ji-Liang Tang and Anil K. Jain. Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review. International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 151-178, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1211-x
Cite as: Han Xu, Yao Ma, Hao-Chen Liu, Debayan Deb, Hui Liu, Ji-Liang Tang and Anil K. Jain. Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review. International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 151-178, 2020.

# Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review

Author Biography:
• Han Xu is a second year Ph. D. student of computer science in DSE Lab, Michigan State University, USA. He is under supervision by Dr. Ji-Liang Tang. His research interests include deep learning safety and robustness, especially studying the problems related to adversarial examples.E-mail: xuhan1@msu.edu (Corresponding author) ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4016-6748

Yao Ma received the B. Sc. degree in applied mathematics at Zhejiang University, China in 2015, the M. Sc. degree in statistics, probabilities and operation research at Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands in 2016. He is now a Ph. D. degree candidate of Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, USA. His Ph. D. advisor is Dr. Jiliang Tang. His research interests include graph neural networks and their related safety issues. E-mail: mayao4@msu.edu

Hao-Chen Liu is currently a Ph. D. student at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Michigan State University, under the supervision of Dr. Jiliang Tang. He is a member of Data Science and Engineering (DSE) Lab. His research interests include natural language processing problems, especially in the robustness, fairness of dialogue systems. E-mail: liuhaoc@msu.edu

Debayan Deb is a Ph. D. degree candidate in the Biometrics Lab, Michigan State University, USA under the supervision of Dr. Anil K. Jain. Before joining the Biometrics Lab of MSU, he graduated from Michigan State University with a Bachelor Degree of Computer Science and Engineering. His research interests include face recognition and computer vision tasks. E-mail: debdebay@msu.edu

Hui Liu is a research associate at Michigan State University. Before joining MSU, she received her Ph. D. degree of Electrical Engineering in Southern Methodist University, USA under the supervision by Dr. Dinesh Rajen. Her research interests include signal processing, wireless communication, and deep learning related topics. E-mail: liuhui7@msu.edu

Ji-Liang Tang is an assistant professor in the computer science and engineering department at Michigan State University since Fall 2016. Before that, he was a research scientist in Yahoo Research and received his Ph. D. degree from Arizona State University in 2015. He was the recipients of 2019 NSF Career Award, the 2015 KDD Best Dissertation runner up and 6 Best Paper Awards (or runner-ups) including WSDM 2018 and KDD 2016. He serves as conference organizers (e.g., KDD, WSDM and SDM) and journal editors (e.g., TKDD). He has published his research in highly ranked journals and top conference proceedings, which received thousands of citations and extensive media coverage.His research interests include social computing, data mining and machine learning and their applications in education. E-mail: tangjili@msu.edu

Anil K. Jain (Ph. D., 1973, Ohio State University; B. Tech., IIT Kanpur) is a University Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University where he conducts research in pattern recognition, machine learning, computer vision, and biometrics recognition. He was a member of the United States Defense Science Board and Forensics Science Standards Board. His prizes include Guggenheim, Humboldt, Fulbright, and King-Sun Fu Prize. For advancing pattern recognition, Jain was awarded Doctor Honoris Causa by Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He was Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence and is a Fellow of ACM, IEEE, AAAS, and SPIE. Jain has been assigned 8 U.S. and Korean patents and is active in technology transfer for which he was elected to the National Academy of Inventors. Jain is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE), foreign member of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), a member of The World Academy of Science (TWAS) and a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). His research interests include pattern recognition, machine learning, computer vision, and biometrics recognition.E-mail: jain@egr.msu.edu

• Accepted: 2019-11-11
• Published Online: 2020-03-27
• Deep neural networks (DNN) have achieved unprecedented success in numerous machine learning tasks in various domains. However, the existence of adversarial examples raises our concerns in adopting deep learning to safety-critical applications. As a result, we have witnessed increasing interests in studying attack and defense mechanisms for DNN models on different data types, such as images, graphs and text. Thus, it is necessary to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of the main threats of attacks and the success of corresponding countermeasures. In this survey, we review the state of the art algorithms for generating adversarial examples and the countermeasures against adversarial examples, for three most popular data types, including images, graphs and text.
• 1Note that the softmax function at a temperature $T$ means: $softmax (x, T)_i = \dfrac{{\rm e}^{\frac{x_i}{T}}}{\displaystyle\sum_{j} {\rm e}^{\frac{x_j}{T}}}$, where $i = 0, 2, \cdots , K-1$.
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###### 通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
• 1.

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## Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review

###### 1. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48823, USA

Abstract: Deep neural networks (DNN) have achieved unprecedented success in numerous machine learning tasks in various domains. However, the existence of adversarial examples raises our concerns in adopting deep learning to safety-critical applications. As a result, we have witnessed increasing interests in studying attack and defense mechanisms for DNN models on different data types, such as images, graphs and text. Thus, it is necessary to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of the main threats of attacks and the success of corresponding countermeasures. In this survey, we review the state of the art algorithms for generating adversarial examples and the countermeasures against adversarial examples, for three most popular data types, including images, graphs and text.

1Note that the softmax function at a temperature $T$ means: $softmax (x, T)_i = \dfrac{{\rm e}^{\frac{x_i}{T}}}{\displaystyle\sum_{j} {\rm e}^{\frac{x_j}{T}}}$, where $i = 0, 2, \cdots , K-1$.
Han Xu, Yao Ma, Hao-Chen Liu, Debayan Deb, Hui Liu, Ji-Liang Tang and Anil K. Jain. Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review. International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 151-178, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1211-x
 Citation: Han Xu, Yao Ma, Hao-Chen Liu, Debayan Deb, Hui Liu, Ji-Liang Tang and Anil K. Jain. Adversarial Attacks and Defenses in Images, Graphs and Text: A Review. International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 151-178, 2020.
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